# 6d $\mathcal N=(1,0)$ anomalies on $S^1$ and F-theory implications

We show that the pure gauge anomalies of 6d $\mathcal N=(1,0)$ theories compactified on a circle are captured by field-dependent Chern-Simons terms appearing at one-loop in the 5d effective theories. These terms vanish if and only if anomalies are canceled. In order to obtain this result, it is crucial to integrate out the massive Kaluza-Klein modes in a way that preserves 6d Lorentz invariance; the often-used zeta-function regularization is not sufficient. Since such field-dependent Chern-Simons terms do not arise in the reduction of M-theory on a threefold, six-dimensional F-theory compactifications are automatically anomaly free, whenever the M/F-duality can be used. A perfect match is then found between the 5d $\mathcal N=1$ prepotentials of the classical M-theory reduction and one-loop circle compactification of an anomaly free theory. Finally, from this potential, we read off the quantum corrections to the gauge coupling functions.

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