## Growing fluctuation of quantum weak invariant and dissipation

The concept of weak invariants has recently been introduced in the context of conserved quantities in finite-time processes in nonequilibrium quantum thermodynamics. A weak invariant itself has a time-dependent spectrum, but its expectation value remains constant under time evolution defined by a relevant master equation... Although its expectation value is thus conserved by definition, its fluctuation is not. Here, time evolution of such a fluctuation is studied. It is shown that if the subdynamics is given by a completely positive map, then the fluctuation of the associated weak invariant does not decrease in time. It is also shown, in the case of the Lindblad equation, how the growth rate of the fluctuation is connected to the dissipator. As examples, the harmonic oscillator with a time-dependent frequency and the spin in a varying external magnetic field are discussed, and the fluctuations of their Hamiltonians as the weak invariants are analyzed. Furthermore, a general relation is presented for the specific heat and temperature of any subsystem near equilibrium following the slow Markovian isoenergetic process. read more

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