How Geometrical Frustrated Systems Challenge our Notion of Thermodynamics

12 Jan 2021  ·  Wolfgang Rudolf Bauer ·

Although Boltzmann's definition of entropy, and, hence, the existence of negative temperatures, are widely accepted, we will show scenarios which apparently at a first glance are inconsistent with our normal notion of thermodynamics. This is shown in the framework of stochastic thermodynamics for special geometrical frustrated systems (GFSs), which have maximum entropy at its ground state and constant negative temperature... For two GFSs in weak thermal contact and at same temperature, all energetic constellations are equal probable. A hot and a cool GFS in contact is driven by entropic forces via heat transfer to a most probable state in which the hot GFS is in its ground state. The same holds for a GFS in contact with a gas. As this is not a local maximum of entropy both subsystems maintain different temperatures here. Re-parametrization can transform these non-local into local maxima with corresponding equivalence of re-defined temperatures. However, these temperatures cannot be assigned solely to a subsystem but describe combinations of both.The non-local maxima of entropy restrict the naive application of the zeroth law of thermodynamics. Reformulated this law is still valid with the consequence that a GFS at constant negative temperature can measure positive temperatures. A GFS combined with a polarized paramagnetic spin gas may have a local or non-local maxima of entropy, with equivalent or non-equivalent temperatures, respectively. In case of a local maximum the spin gas can measure the temperature of the GFS, however, it does not reveal information about its energetic state. read more

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Statistical Mechanics 82B30, 80A05 J.2; H.1.0; G.3