Imaginary-time time-dependent density functional theory for periodic systems

21 May 2020  ·  McFarland John, Manousakis Efstratios ·

Imaginary-time time-dependent Density functional theory (it-TDDFT) has been proposed as an alternative method for obtaining the ground state within density functional theory (DFT) which avoids some of the difficulties with convergence encountered by the self-consistent-field (SCF) iterative method. It-TDDFT was previously applied to clusters of atoms where it was demonstrated to converge in select cases where SCF had difficulty with convergence... In the present work we implement it-TDDFT propagation for {\it periodic systems} by modifying the Quantum ESPRESSO package, which uses a plane-wave basis with multiple $\boldsymbol{k}$ points, and has the options of non-collinear and DFT+U calculations using ultra-soft or norm-conserving pseudo potentials. We demonstrate that our implementation of it-TDDFT propagation with multiple $\boldsymbol{k}$ points is correct for DFT+U non-collinear calculations and for DFT+U calculations with ultra-soft pseudo potentials. Our implementation of it-TDDFT propagation converges to the exact SCF energy (up to the decimal guaranteed by double precision) in all but one case where it converged to a slightly lower value than SCF, suggesting a useful alternative for systems where SCF has difficulty to reach the Kohn-Sham ground state. In addition, we demonstrate that rapid convergence can be achieved if we use adaptive-size imaginary-time-steps for different kinetic-energy plane-waves. read more

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Computational Physics Materials Science