Imaging Mechanism for Hyperspectral Scanning Probe Microscopy via Gaussian Process Modelling

26 Nov 2019  ·  Maxim Ziatdinov, Dohyung Kim, Sabine Neumayer, Rama K. Vasudevan, Liam Collins, Stephen Jesse, Mahshid Ahmadi, Sergei V. Kalinin ·

We investigate the ability to reconstruct and derive spatial structure from sparsely sampled 3D piezoresponse force microcopy data, captured using the band-excitation (BE) technique, via Gaussian Process (GP) methods. Even for weakly informative priors, GP methods allow unambiguous determination of the characteristic length scales of the imaging process both in spatial and frequency domains. We further show that BE data set tends to be oversampled, with ~30% of the original data set sufficient for high-quality reconstruction, potentially enabling the faster BE imaging. Finally, we discuss how the GP can be used for automated experimentation in SPM, by combining GP regression with non-rectangular scans. The full code for GP regression applied to hyperspectral data is available at

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Computational Physics Materials Science