Universal Fabrication of Two-Dimensional Electron Systems in Functional Oxides

15 Feb 2021 Tobias Chris Rödel Franck Fortuna Shamashis Sengupta Emmanouil Frantzeskakis Patrick Le Fèvre François Bertran Bernard Mercey Sylvia Matzen Guillaume Agnus Thomas Maroutian Philippe Lecoeur Andrés Felipe~Santander-Syro

Two-dimensional electron systems (2DESs) in functional oxides are promising for applications, but their fabrication and use, essentially limited to SrTiO$_3$-based heterostructures, are hampered by the need of growing complex oxide over-layers thicker than 2~nm using evolved techniques. This work shows that thermal deposition of a monolayer of an elementary reducing agent suffices to create 2DESs in numerous oxides...

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