Variance as a sensitive probe of correlations enduring the infinite particle limit

26 Feb 2015  ·  Klaiman Shachar, Alon Ofir E. ·

Bose-Einstein condensates made of ultracold trapped bosonic atoms have become a central venue in which interacting many-body quantum systems are studied. The ground state of a trapped Bose-Einstein condensate has been proven to be 100% condensed in the limit of infinite particle number and constant interaction parameter [Lieb and Seiringer, Phys... Rev. Lett. {\bf 88}, 170409 (2002)]. The meaning of this result is that properties of the condensate, noticeably its energy and density, converge to those obtained by minimizing the Gross-Pitaevskii energy functional. This naturally raises the question whether correlations are of any importance in this limit. Here, we demonstrate both analytically and numerically that even in the infinite particle limit many-body correlations can lead to a substantial modification of the \textit{variance} of any operator compared to that expected from the Gross-Pitaevskii result. The strong deviation of the variance stems from its explicit dependence on terms of the reduced two-body density matrix which otherwise do not contribute to the energy and density in this limit. This makes the variance a sensitive probe of many-body correlations even when the energy and density of the system have already converged to the Gross-Pitaevskii result. We use the center-of-mass position operator to exemplify this persistence of correlations. Implications of this many-body effect are discussed. read more

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