Variational Quantum Pulse Learning

31 Mar 2022  ·  Zhiding Liang, Hanrui Wang, Jinglei Cheng, Yongshan Ding, Hang Ren, Zhengqi Gao, Zhirui Hu, Duane S. Boning, Xuehai Qian, Song Han, Weiwen Jiang, Yiyu Shi ·

Quantum computing is among the most promising emerging techniques to solve problems that are computationally intractable on classical hardware. A large body of existing works focus on using variational quantum algorithms on the gate level for machine learning tasks, such as the variational quantum circuit (VQC). However, VQC has limited flexibility and expressibility due to limited number of parameters, e.g. only one parameter can be trained in one rotation gate. On the other hand, we observe that quantum pulses are lower than quantum gates in the stack of quantum computing and offers more control parameters. Inspired by the promising performance of VQC, in this paper we propose variational quantum pulses (VQP), a novel paradigm to directly train quantum pulses for learning tasks. The proposed method manipulates variational quantum pulses by pulling and pushing the amplitudes of pulses in an optimization framework. Similar to variational quantum algorithms, our framework to train pulses maintains the robustness to noise on Noisy Intermediate-Scale Quantum (NISQ) computers. In an example task of binary classification, VQP learning achieves up to 11% and 9% higher accuracy compared with VQC learning on the qiskit noise simulators (with noise model from real machine) and ibmq-jarkata, respectively, demonstrating its effectiveness and feasibility. Stability for VQP to obtain reliable results has also been verified in the presence of noise.

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