A general-purpose single-photon-based quantum computing platform

1 Jun 2023  ·  Nicolas Maring, Andreas Fyrillas, Mathias Pont, Edouard Ivanov, Petr Stepanov, Nico Margaria, William Hease, Anton Pishchagin, Thi Huong Au, Sébastien Boissier, Eric Bertasi, Aurélien Baert, Mario Valdivia, Marie Billard, Ozan Acar, Alexandre Brieussel, Rawad Mezher, Stephen C. Wein, Alexia Salavrakos, Patrick Sinnott, Dario A. Fioretto, Pierre-Emmanuel Emeriau, Nadia Belabas, Shane Mansfield, Pascale Senellart, Jean Senellart, Niccolo Somaschi ·

Quantum computing aims at exploiting quantum phenomena to efficiently perform computations that are unfeasible even for the most powerful classical supercomputers. Among the promising technological approaches, photonic quantum computing offers the advantages of low decoherence, information processing with modest cryogenic requirements, and native integration with classical and quantum networks. To date, quantum computing demonstrations with light have implemented specific tasks with specialized hardware, notably Gaussian Boson Sampling which permitted quantum computational advantage to be reached. Here we report a first user-ready general-purpose quantum computing prototype based on single photons. The device comprises a high-efficiency quantum-dot single-photon source feeding a universal linear optical network on a reconfigurable chip for which hardware errors are compensated by a machine-learned transpilation process. Our full software stack allows remote control of the device to perform computations via logic gates or direct photonic operations. For gate-based computation we benchmark one-, two- and three-qubit gates with state-of-the art fidelities of $99.6\pm0.1 \%$, $93.8\pm0.6 \%$ and $86\pm1.2 \%$ respectively. We also implement a variational quantum eigensolver, which we use to calculate the energy levels of the hydrogen molecule with high accuracy. For photon native computation, we implement a classifier algorithm using a $3$-photon-based quantum neural network and report a first $6$-photon Boson Sampling demonstration on a universal reconfigurable integrated circuit. Finally, we report on a first heralded 3-photon entanglement generation, a key milestone toward measurement-based quantum computing.

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