Simulating multiscale gated field emitters -- a hybrid approach

6 Nov 2020  ·  Shreya Sarkar, Raghwendra Kumar, Gaurav Singh, Debabrata Biswas ·

Multi-stage cathodes are promising candidates for field emission due to the multiplicative effect in local field predicted by the Schottky conjecture and its recent corrected counterpart [J. Vac. Sci... Technol. B 38, 023208 (2020)]. Due to the large variation in length scales even in a 2-stage compound structure consisting of a macroscopic base and a microscopic protrusion, the simulation methodology of a gated field emitting compound diode needs to be revisited. As part of this strategy, the authors investigate the variation of local field on the surface of a compound emitter near its apex and find that the generalized cosine law continues to hold locally near the tip of a multi-scale gated cathode. This is used to emit charges with appropriate distributions in position and velocity components with a knowledge of only the electric field at the apex. The distributions are consistent with contemporary free-electron field emission model and follow from the joint distribution of launch angle, total energy, and normal energy. For a compound geometry with local field enhancement by a factor of around 1000, a hybrid model is used where the vacuum field calculated using COMSOL is imported into the Particle-In-Cell code PASUPAT where the emission module is implemented. Space charge effects are incorporated in a multi-scale adaptation of PASUPAT using a truncated geometry with `open electrostatic boundary' condition. The space charge field, combined with the vacuum field, is used for particle-emission and tracking. read more

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Applied Physics Mesoscale and Nanoscale Physics Accelerator Physics Computational Physics Plasma Physics